R.J. Minyo Jr., D.M. Jordan, and A.B. Geyer
Ohio Corn Performance Test, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, 44691.
Results of the Ohio Corn Performance Test are published to provide a source of objective information on the relative performance of corn hybrids currently available to Ohio farmers. The information should benefit farmers in selecting profitable hybrids for farming use. Hybrids available to farmers differ in yield potential, standability, and other agronomic characteristics. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance.
Confidence in the test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. The performance of a hybrid in one region should not be compared with the performance of a different hybrid in another region, since this difference is indicative of the reaction of this hybrid to different environments. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed corn producers were eligible to submit for evaluation commercially available and experimental hybrids. Each producer was permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Companies were required to enter a hybrid in three sites within a testing region.
Each hybrid was replicated three times at each test site in a randomized block design. Hybrids were planted with a commercial type planter adapted for plot planting. Each plot consisted of four 30 inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Seed corn producers selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. The center two rows of each plot were harvested, without gleaning, with a self-propelled two-row picker sheller combine. Yields were based on bushels of grain per acre at 15.5 percent moisture.
Hybrids were tested at two other sites, Piketon and Coshocton, that are in areas known to contain a high incidence of corn virus and gray leaf spot, respectively. Evaluation techniques for these hybrids were the same as those used in the regional testing program.
YIELD. The middle two rows of each plot were harvested with a picker sheller combine. Yields were calculated to reflect bushels per acre at 15.5 percent moisture.
PLANT POPULATION (PLANT RATE-FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations are reported in hundreds per acre.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of kernels planted.
PLANT-EAR HEIGHTS (PH-EH). The plant and ear heights were determined by recording the average distance from ground level to the height of the tassel bearing and primary ear bearing nodes at one site in a region.
MID SILK (SILK). The mid silk date is the calendar day of the year in which 50% of the plants show silks at one site in a region.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all three sites in the regional tests.
PROTEIN - OIL - STARCH (PROT-OIL-STRCH). An analysis for crude protein, oil, and starch was performed on dried samples by the OSU Grain Quality Laboratory using a near-infrared transmittance whole grain analyzer with a SystemOne program calibration. Results are reported in percent protein, oil, and starch content at 15.0 percent grain moisture.
To many farmers the most important factor in seed corn selection is comparing the grain yield of available hybrids. When comparing two entries, a yield difference greater than the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P=.05 indicates that the odds are 19:1 that this is a real difference between the entries which is not due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.).
Grain moisture percentage at harvest is a useful tool in the measurement of hybrid maturity. For convenience, hybrids are listed in increasing order of summary grain moisture content at harvest. Yield, standability, test weight, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted for your farm. Environmental conditions can affect grain composition. Thus the values reported for protein and oil should be used for comparison purposes and not as absolute values for feeding.
Results of corn and other variety testing programs may be found on the web at http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf/.
Go to Ohio Crop Performance
All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.
Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.
TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868