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Ohio Crop Performance Trials

2014 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST

R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop Science,
D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2014, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/ West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with an Almaco Seed Pro 360 plot planter with SkyTrip GPS. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed companies selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2014 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.

SITE INFORMATION

SITE BUCYRUS WOOSTER BELOIT
SOIL TYPE BLOUNT SILT LOAM CANFIELD SILT LOAM FITCHVILLE SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS SOYBEANS SOYBEANS
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES mAY 26 / NOV 13 MAY 25 / NOV 11 MAY 24 / NOV 5
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL MINIMUM TILL NO TILL
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 198, 26, 120 PLUS VRT APPLIED MAP 225, 26, 0 160, 26, 0
COOPERATOR CRAWFORD COUNTY EXTENSION GERALD REID, OARDC B & B FARMS
COUNTY CRAWFORD WAYNE MAHONING
     
SITE HEBRON HOYTVILLE UPPER SANDUSKY
SOIL TYPE LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM HOYTVILLE CLAY RESULTS NOT PUBLISHED
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP CORN SOYBEANS  
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 27 / NOV 3 MAY 20 / OCT 29  
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL STALE SEED BED  
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 314, 26, 0 208, 26, 0  
COOPERATOR PARRISH FARMS MATT DAVIS,  OARDC  
COUNTY LICKING WOOD  
     
SITE SOUTH CHARLESTON WASHINGTON C.H. GREENVILLE
SOIL TYPE KOKOMO SILT LOAM PEWAMO SILT LOAM KOKOMO SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS SOYBEANS WHEAT
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 31 / OCT 31 MAY 28 / NOV 7 MAY 30 / OCT 30
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL MINIMUM TILL STALE SEED BED
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 219, 78, 76   220, 26, 0
COOPERATOR JOE DAVLIN, OARDC SOLLARS FARM STUMP FARMS
COUNTY CLARK FAYETTE DARKE
     
SITE VAN WERT    
SOIL TYPE BLOUNT SILT LOAM    
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS    
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 23 / OCT 27    
TILLAGE FALL STRIP TILL    
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K)      
COOPERATOR NICK WILLIAMS    
COUNTY VAN WERT    

Soil Test / Fertilizer (N) P & K reported as lbs./acre.

MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS

YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (Bu/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.

MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.

LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.

FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.

EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.

TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.

LSD 0.05 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.05 (LSD 0.05) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 95% confident (i.e. the odds are 19:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X is really higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 5% probability level.

GROSS INCOME IN $/ACRE. Calculated using corn price of $3.75 per bushel and $0.03 drying charge for each percentage of moisture above 15.5%.

2014 GROWING CONDITIONS

The 2014 growing season was generally characterized by favorable conditions for corn growth and development although temperatures and rainfall were variable across test sites. Wet soil conditions delayed planting until May 20.Temperatures were slightly above normal in May and June and below normal to near normal in July through September at most sites. Lower than normal temperatures combined with late planting reduced growing degree day (heat unit) accumulation at several test sites. Rainfall was above average during the early-mid vegetative stages in May and June and below average in July to September (Table 2). Timely rains in July and August and moderate temperatures limited stress and contributed to high yields at most sites. Slow crop maturation and dry down, combined with persistent rains and saturated soils delayed harvest and resulted in higher than normal grain moisture and lower test weights. Stalk lodging was not a problem for most of the hybrids evaluated. It was most pronounced at Bucyrus but averaged less than 10%. Disease and insect pests were not a significant factor at most test sites. Symptoms of northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot were severe but usually appeared late in the season. At Greenville, gray leaf spot may have reduced yields of some hybrids. Low levels of moldy grain were observed for some hybrids at Hebron.

RESULTS

Results of the 2014 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2014 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.

Despite later than normal planting dates, high yields were achieved at most test locations due to ample and timely rainfall and moderate temperatures which created near stress-free growing conditions. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, grain yields were 244 bu/A in the Southwest and West Central region, 243 bu/A in North Central and Northeast region, and 201 bu/A yields in the Northwest region. Performance data for Upper Sandusky in the NW region are not presented because excessive rainfall shortly after planting combined with a dry July and August resulted in uneven crop growth and inconsistent yields. The Hoytville location in NW Ohio was the only test site which averaged less than 200 bu/A. Lower yields were due in part to soil crusting caused by hard rains after planting which reduced plant population and a very dry August (0.75 inches of rainfall).

Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrid tested at six and nine locations in 2014 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Avoid relying on data from a single test site, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm.

All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam era veteran status. Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension. TDD No. 800 589 8292 (Ohio only) or 614 292 1868

Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2014 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station, Ken Scaife and Gerald Reid, OSU-OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis, OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station, and Alex Lindsey, Graduate Fellow, OSU Hort. and Crop Sci. Dept. We thank Tim Bowman, Betsy Ludwig and Dave Scardena in Communications and Technology for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication.