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Ohio Crop Performance Trials

2013 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST

R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop Science,
D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2013, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/ West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with a commercial type planter adapted for plot planting. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed corn producers selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2013 test are listed below.

SITE INFORMATION

SITE BUCYRUS WOOSTER BELOIT
SOIL TYPE Results Not Published CANFIELD SILT LOAM FITCHVILLE SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)   6.9, 109, 342 6.0, 35, 318
PREVIOUS CROP   SOYBEANS SOYBEANS
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES   MAY 16 / NOV 5 MAY 8 / OCT 22
TILLAGE   MINIMUM TILL NO TILL
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K)   200, 40, 40 160,40,40
COOPERATOR   OARDC B & B FARMS
COUNTY   WAYNE MAHONING
     
SITE HEBRON HOYTVILLE UPPER SANDUSKY
SOIL TYPE LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM HOYTVILLE CLAY BLOUNT SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K) 5.8, 66, 356 6.3, 85, 467 5.8, 111, 439
PREVIOUS CROP CORN SOYBEANS SOYBEANS
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 9 / OCT 26 MAY 6 / OCT 24 MAY 15 / NOV 11
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL STALE SEED BED MINIMUM TILL
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 300,109,190 210,40,40 265,150,190
COOPERATOR PARRISH FARMS MATT DAVIS,  OARDC LARRY ROSS FARM
COUNTY LICKING WOOD WYANDOT
     
SITE SOUTH CHARLESTON WASHINGTON C.H. GREENVILLE
SOIL TYPE Results not published PEWAMO SILT LOAM KOKOMO SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)   6.2, 61, 441 6.2, 152, 544
PREVIOUS CROP   SOYBEANS WHEAT
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES   MAY 17 / OCT 21 MAY 15 / OCT 28
TILLAGE   MINIMUM TILL STALE SEED BED
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K)   260, 86, 73 190,40,40
COOPERATOR   SOLLARS FARM STUMP FARMS
COUNTY   FAYETTE DARKE
     
SITE VAN WERT    
SOIL TYPE BLOUNT SILT LOAM    
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K) 5.9, 102, 495    
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS    
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 7 / OCT 25    
TILLAGE FALL STRIP TILL    
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 220,40,190    
COOPERATOR NICK WILLIAMS    
COUNTY VAN WERT    

Soil Test / Fertilizer (N) P & K reported as lbs./acre.

MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS

YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (BU/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.

MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.

LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.

FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.

EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.

TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.

LSD 0.05 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.05 (LSD 0.05) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 95% confident (i.e. The odds are 19:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X really is higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 5% probability level.

GROSS INCOME IN $/ACRE. Calculated using corn price of $4.50 per bushel and $0.03 drying charge for each percentage of moisture above 15.5%.

2013 GROWING CONDITIONS

The 2013 growing season throughout much of Ohio was characterized by favorable conditions for corn growth and development. Rainfall was generally below normal in May but was near normal to well above normal rainfall in June and July, during mid-to-late vegetation stages, pollination, and early grain fill. Near normal to below normal temperatures in July and August mitigated the impact of dry conditions in August and Sept. At most test sites, rainfall was below normal in Sept. and above normal in October. Persistent rains in October delayed harvest at several locations. A severe wind storm on July 10 resulted in widespread root lodging and some localized greensnap damage. Plants in most root lodged fields recovered within 1 to 2 weeks after this wind event. Stalk and root lodging at harvest was generally negligible. However lodging was greater at test sites harvested after storms on October 31 that were accompanied by strong winds. Disease and insect pests were not a significant factor at most test sites. At Washington CH, gray leaf spot was severe but appeared late in the season.

RESULTS

Results of the 2013 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2013 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.

Record high yields were achieved at most test locations due to ample and timely rainfall and moderate temperatures which created near stress-free growing conditions for most of the growing season. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, grain yields in the Southwest and West Central region and the North Central and Northeast region were 239 bu/A, whereas yields in the Northwest region were 248 bu/A. Performance data for South Charleston in the SW/SC region and Bucyrus in the NC/NE region are not presented. At these sites, excessive rainfall (S. Charleston) and wind damage (Bucyrus) combined with variable field conditions resulted in inconsistent yields.

Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrid tested at six to eight locations in 2013 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Avoid relying on data from a single test site, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm.

All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam era veteran status.
Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. And Director, OSU Extension.
TDD No. 800 589 8292 (Ohio only) or 614 292 1868

Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2013 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station, Ken Scaife and Gerald Reid, OSU-OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis, OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station, and Alex Lindsey, Graduate Fellow, OSU Hort. And Crop Sci. Dept. We thank Tim Bowman and Kelly Zachrich in Communications and Technology for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication.