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Ohio Crop Performance Trials

2016 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST

R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop Science,
D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2016, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/ West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with an Almaco Seed Pro 360 plot planter with SkyTrip GPS. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed companies selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2016 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.

SITE INFORMATION

SITE BUCYRUS WOOSTER BELOIT
SOIL TYPE BLOUNT SILT LOAM CANFIELD SILT LOAM FITCHVILLE SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS WHEAT SOYBEANS
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 24 / OCT 28 MAY 26 / OCT 25 MAY 12 / OCT 24
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL STALE SEEDBED MINIMUM TILL
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 207, 26, 0 207, 26, 0 175, 26, 0
FUNGICIDE      
COOPERATOR CRAWFORD COUNTY EXTENSION MIKE SWORD/KEN SCAIFE, OARDC B & B FARMS
COUNTY CRAWFORD WAYNE MAHONING
     
SITE HEBRON HOYTVILLE UPPER SANDUSKY
SOIL TYPE LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM HOYTVILLE CLAY BLOUNT SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP CORN SOYBEANS SOYBEANS
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 8 / SEPT 28 & OCT 3 MAY 23 / OCT 12 MAY 25 / NOV 1
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL STALE SEED BED MINIMUM TILL
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 310, 118, 180 207, 26, 0 224, 104, 90
FUNGICIDE YES NO YES
COOPERATOR PARRISH FARMS MATT DAVIS,  OARDC LARRY ROSS
COUNTY LICKING WOOD WYANDOT
     
SITE SOUTH CHARLESTON WASHINGTON C.H. GREENVILLE
SOIL TYPE KOKOMO SILT LOAM PEWAMO SILT LOAM KOKOMO SILT LOAM
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)       
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS SOYBEANS WHEAT
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 27 / OCT 14 MAY 7 / OCT 17 MAY 20 / OCT 11
TILLAGE MINIMUM TILL MINIMUM TILL STALE SEEDBED
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 207, 26, 0 247, 130, 0 187, 26, 0
FUNGICIDE NO NO NO
COOPERATOR JOE DAVLIN, OARDC SOLLARS FARM STUMP FARMS
COUNTY CLARK FAYETTE DARKE
     
SITE VAN WERT    
SOIL TYPE BLOUNT SILT LOAM    
SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)      
PREVIOUS CROP SOYBEANS    
PLANTING /HARVEST DATES MAY 25 / NOV 2    
TILLAGE FALL STRIP TILL    
FERTILIZER  (N,P,K) 217, 26, 150    
FUNGICIDE NO    
COOPERATOR NICK WILLIAMS    
COUNTY VAN WERT    

Soil Test / Fertilizer (N) P & K reported as lbs./acre.

MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS

YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (Bu/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.

MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.

LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.

FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.

EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.

TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.

LSD 0.10 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.10 (LSD 0.10) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 90% confident (i.e. the odds are 18:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 10% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X is really higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 10% probability level.

GROSS INCOME IN $/ACRE. Calculated using corn price of $3.50 per bushel and $0.03 drying charge for each percentage of moisture above 15.5%.

2016 GROWING CONDITIONS

The 2016 Ohio growing season was characterized by cool, wet conditions in April and May followed by warmer and drier than normal conditions from late June to early-mid August, especially in parts of northern and western Ohio. According to the U.S. Drought Monitor during the second week of August, 46 percent of the state was rated as in “moderate drought” with that area covering most of northern Ohio. Another 15 percent of the state was rated in “severe drought” with that area spreading from west central Ohio to northeast Ohio.  Hot, dry conditions at pollination and early grain fill resulted in poor kernel set and ear tip fill but timely rains in August and September reduced the impact of the drought on yield. Premature kernel sprouting and moldy grain caused by ear and kernel fungi, including Diplodia, Gibberella, and Trichoderma fungi, was present in localized areas across the state and was often more evident in early planted, earlier maturing hybrids. Foliar diseases and insect pests were not a major factor at most test sites. There were reports of major stalk lodging in localized areas but stalk quality problems were generally not widespread and negligible. Warm, dry conditions in September and October promoted crop maturation and dry down.

RESULTS

Results of the 2016 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2016 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”.  Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.

Yields varied across the state depending on the timing and duration of drought conditions.  Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, yields were 241 bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 195 bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 197 bu/A in the North Central/Northeastern region.  Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, ranged from 163 bu/A at Wooster to 256 bu/A at Hebron. The Wooster, Hoytville and Van Wert test sites were especially dry in June and July and averaged lower yields than other test locations. The full season tests averaged consistently higher yields than the early tests. Moldy grain was observed in some hybrids at Hebron and Beloit. Moderate to high levels of gray leaf spot were evident in a few hybrids at Bucyrus and Beloit. Lodging was largely absent across sites except at S. Charleston where some hybrids lodged as a result of heavy rains and strong winds in late August.

Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrids tested at seven and ten locations in 2016 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm. Results of the crop performance trials for 2016 can be sorted by yield, brand, and other variables.

All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam era veteran status. Dr. Roger Rennekamp, Director, OSU Extension. TDD No. 800 589 8292 (Ohio only) or 614 292 1868

Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2016 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station, Ken Scaife and Mike Sword, OSU-OARDC Wooster and Matt Davis, OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station. We thank Tim Bowman, Betsy Ludwig and Dave Scardena in Communications for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication.