2018 Ohio-Michigan Silage Test
Rich Minyo, William Widdicombe and Peter Thomison
2018, we conducted a joint trial with Michigan State University (MSU) adding one
Ohio silage location to Michigan's two southern (Zone 1) silage locations. The
Ohio test site was located in our Northwest Region at Hoytville (Wood County)
The two MSU sites are located in Branch and Lenawee counties which are on the
Ohio/Michigan state line. The test results from the three locations are treated
as one region. The plots were planted with 4 row air type planters and
maintained by each respective state utilizing standard production practices. The
center 2 rows were harvested with MSU's self propelled forage harvester. Silage
tests were harvested uniformly as close to half milk line as possible. Near
Infrared Reflectance (NIR) Quality Analysis was performed by MSU using their
current procedures. Silage results present the percent dry matter of each hybrid
plus green weight and dry weight as tons per acre. Other data presented include
percent stand, the percentage of in vitro digestible dry matter, acid detergent
fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein and starch. Milk production in
pounds per ton and pounds per acre are estimated using MILK2006. More
information on procedures and additional 2018 MSU test data can be viewed on the
Testing procedures (randomization, replication, planting rates, etc.) for silage evaluation are the same as those utilized for the grain trials. Plots are 4 rows wide and the center 2 rows are harvested for yield and quality.
Zones 1 and zone 2/3 were divided into two maturity groups designated early and late on the basis of the relative maturity (RM) submitted by the companies with results listed in separate tables. In cooperation with The Ohio State University, the Wood County, OH location is planted and managed by OSU while MSU handles harvest, quality and data analysis. A New Holland T6.175 tractor powered a two-row Champion C1200 Kemper forage harvester and a rear mounted Haldrup M-63 Weigh system to harvest the two center rows. Electronic scales mounted on the Haldrup M-63 weigh system measured plot and subsample weights. All field data was recorded on a Panasonic FZG1 Toughpad using Harvest Master™ software. Total plot weight was used to calculate green tons per acre (GT/A). Sub samples of fodder including grain were collected, weighed, oven dried in a WRH586-500 Greives forced air dryer until weight loss was zero, then re-weighed to determine the percent dry matter (%DM). Dry tons per acre (DT/A) is calculated mathematically by multiplying GT/A by %DM. The samples were ground using a Cristy mill fitted with a 1mm screen before conducting quality analysis using Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict quality components.
Corn Silage Information 2018
||OSHTEMO SANDY LOAM
||HOYTVILLE CLAY LOAM
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)
|PLANTING / HARVESTING
||May 29/Sept. 28
||May 30/Oct. 2
||May 24/Sept. 5
|STAND 100% / AVERAGE
||35,244 / 33,264
||35,244 / 33,264
||34,452 / 33,264
||HUFF FARMS - KYLE HUFF
||BAKER-LADD FARMS - BLAINE BAKER
||OARDC - MATT DAVIS & RICH MINYO
All silage tables provide quality data as determined by Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis on freshly dried & ground samples. Data is provided for individual locations and also averaged over multiple locations. Near infrared spectral analysis involves irradiating the sample with light in the near infrared spectrum (1,100 to 2,500 nm). The illuminated sample absorbs light proportional to specific chemical and physical properties. The reflected energy is measured and correlated statistically with the NIRS Consortiums calibration equation established for silage quality levels. Results of the six quality traits analyzed are presented in the quality tables. The six quality traits are:
- IVD= (in vitro) digestible dry matter.
IVD is a
measure of forage digestibility. Higher IVD is desirable.
- ADF=acid detergent fiber. Acid detergent fiber
represents the less digestible portion of the corn
forage, containing cellulose, lignin and heat damaged
protein. ADF is closely related to the digestibility of
forages. Lower ADF implies the forage is more
digestible. More mature plant material will contain
higher ADF concentrations. A low concentration of ADF is desirable.
- NDF=neutral detergent fiber. This is a measure of
the fiber content of the corn forage. It is less digestible
than non-fiber constituents of the forage. Forages with
high NDF levels have lower energy. NDF is also a
measure of potential forage intake. High NDF levels
decrease the potential forage intake. Low NDF content is desirable.
- NDFD=neutral detergent fiber digestibility. The
portion of neutral detergent fiber digested by animals
at a specified level of feed intake. High NDFD is desirable.
- CP=crude protein. Forages are generally
supplemented with high protein concentrates such as
soybean meal to increase the protein content of
ruminant diets. Corn hybrids with high protein levels
require less supplementation and therefore result in
lower feed costs. High protein content is desirable.
- STRCH=starch. Starch from the grain, along with the
digestible component of the fiber, accounts for the
majority of the energy in corn silage.
Silage quality traits are reported on a dry matter basis (100
percent DM). Quality traits in these tables are intended
for use in hybrid selection only. Analysis for the balancing
of feed rations should be analyzed from hybrids grown on each individual farm.
An updated calculation using the MILK2006 equation (UW-Madison
Dairy Science Department) was used to estimates MK/T (milk per ton)
and MK/A (milk per acre). MILK2006 estimates the dry matter intake
using the NDF and CWD (cell wall digestibility) parameters of the
sample. The updated equation utilizes CP, fat, and sugar as well as
the organic acid fractions along with their total-tract
digestibility coefficients to estimate energy. Whole plant dry
matter was calculated to 34% for all hybrids and digestibility
coefficients used for the fat and sugars as well as the organic acid
fractions were held constant. MILK2006 also assumes the weight of
the cow is 1,350 lbs. and that it consumes a 30 percent NDF diet.
Using National Research Council (NRC, 2001) energy requirements, the
estimated intake of energy from corn silage is converted to milk per
ton. Milk per acre is then calculated using the estimated values for
milk per ton and dry matter yield per acre. For more information on
the utility of MILK2006 please see: