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The Laboratory of Dr. Sandra Gayle Velleman




Who We Are

Dr. Sandra Gayle Velleman

Dr. Velleman

Professor
Department of Animal Sciences
The Ohio State University
213 Gerlaugh Hall
1680 Madison Avenue
Wooster, Ohio 44691
Telephone Number: (330) 263-3905

e-mail logo velleman.1@osu.edu


B.A., Boston University, 1981.

Ph.D., University of Connecticut with Specialization in Cell and Developmental Biology, 1986.

NIH Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Pennsylvania Medical School Connective Tissue Research Institute, 1986 to 1987.

Assistant Professor in Residence, University of Connecticut, Department of Animal Sciences, 1988 to 1995.

Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, 1995 to 2000.

Associate Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, 2000 to 2005.

Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, 2005- .

Laboratory Staff

 

 
Cindy Coy
Lab Supervisor
 

Caini Liu
Postdoctoral Fellow

Xuehui Li
PhD Student

Rachel Harding
Undergraduate Student

 


Areas of Research Focus

Extracellular Matrix Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Development:
Skeletal muscle myogenesis is a highly organized process regulated by complex interactions between muscle cells and their environment.  Muscle develops from myoblasts that proliferate, align, and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes that differentiate into mature muscle fibers.  Muscle fibers are surrounded and supported by three layers of connective tissue: endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium.  Connective tissue is composed of cells and an extracellular matrix.  The extracellular matrix is composed of fibrous and nonfibrous proteins including collagens and proteoglycans.  In the past decade, research has shown the extracellular matrix to be a dynamic action zone that functions to instruct cellular phenotype.  The extracellular matrix modulates the activation of signal transduction pathways critical to differentiation.  Important to this role of the extracellular matrix is the dynamic nature of the extracellular environment in that the composition of the matrix changes with maturation and is cell type specific.  These developmentally regulated changes in the extracellular matrix have profound affects on the function of the extracellular matrix as well as cellular responses to the extracellular matrix.  How the expression of the extracellular matrix macromolecules affects muscle growth is currently not well understood.  It is the long-term goal of my research to further understand the signaling mechanisms by which specific extracellular matrix macromolecules influence the process of skeletal muscle growth and development.

The Role of the Extracellular Matrix in the Loss of Muscle with Age:
Skeletal muscle and its associated connective tissue comprises approximately 40% of the total human body. The appropriate structure and function of skeletal muscle is required for muscle contraction and relaxation, and the maintenance of body posture. The average human loses 25-30% of their skeletal muscle mass by the age of 70. Skeletal muscle satellite cells are responsible for the regeneration and repair of muscle fibers. The percentage of satellite cells in relation to the total number of nuclei present in a muscle fiber progressively declines with age, and the ability of satellite cells to reenter the cell cycle to proliferate and differentiate also decreases with age. Muscle fibers including the satellite cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix that contains proteoglycans which are required for the activity of certain growth factors that function as potent stimulators or inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. How the extracellular matrix proteoglycans involved with growth factor signaling of satellite cells changes with age is largely unknown. The objective of this research is to learn more about how the expression of proteoglycans integral to growth factor signaling changes with muscle age and how these changes are associated with satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.


The Affect of Genetic Selection of Poultry for Growth Rate on Muscle Formation:
The trend of the poultry industry has been to select birds with increased growth rate and muscling.  Although growth rate, feed conversion, and muscling have improved in meat-type chickens and turkeys, meat quality has been altered.  The turkey processing industry in recent years is experiencing a meat quality problem which is similar to the pale, soft, exudative (PSE) condition in swine.  Turkey PSE meat after cooking has a soft texture, poor meat binding, poor juiciness due to reduced water-holding capacity, and increased yield losses.  How genetic selection for growth rate has affected muscle fiber bundle architecture and extracellular matrix spacing between the muscle fibers is not well understood.  The extracellular space around the muscle fibers contains molecules essential in maintaining water-holding capacity.  If the concentration or distribution of these extracellular molecules is modified, it is likely that water-holding capacity will be affected.  The goals of this research are to determine if genetic selection for increased growth rate and breast muscling has changed pectoral muscle fiber characteristics, the degree of extracellular matrix spacing between muscle fibers, and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins pivotal to muscle development.



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Recent Publications

Velleman, S.G. 2000. The role of the extracellular matrix in skeletal development. Poult. Sci. 79:985-989.

Velleman, S.G., Liu, X., Nestor, K.E., and McFarland, D.C. 2000. Heterogeneity in growth and differentiation characteristics in male and female satellite cells isolated from turkey lines with different growth rates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 125:503-509.

Velleman, S.G., Coy, C.S., Gannon, L., Wick, M., and McFarland, D.C. 2000. 1 Integrin expression during normal and low score normal avian myogenesis. Poult. Sci. 79:1179-1182.

Pedersen, M.E., Kulseth, M-A., Kolset, S.O., Velleman, S., and Eggen, K.H. 2001. Decorin and fibromodulin expression in two bovine muscles (M. Semitendinosus and M. Psoas Major) differing in texture. J. Muscle Foods 12: 1-17.

Velleman, S.G., McCormick R.J., Ely, D., Jarrold, B.B., Patterson, R.A., Scott, C.B., Daneshvar, H., and Bacon, W.L. 2001. Collagen characteristics and organization during the progression of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 226: 328-333.

Velleman, S.G. and Nestor, K.E. 2001. Mode of inheritance of the low score normal condition in chickens. Poult. Sci. 80:1273-1277.

Velleman, S.G. and Ely, D. 2001. Low score normal weakness alters cardiac decorin expression: Implication for cardiac collagen fibril organization. Poult. Sci. 80:1743-1747.

Zimmerman, S.D., Thomas, D.P., Velleman, S.G., and McCormick, R.J. 2001. Time course of collagen and decorin changes in rat cardiac and skeletal muscle following myocardial infarction. Am. J. Physiol. 281:H1816-1822.

Nestor, K.E., Anderson, J.W., and Velleman, S.G. 2001. Genetic variation in pure lines and crosses of large-bodied turkey lines. 1. Body weight, walking ability, and body measurements of live birds. Poult. Sci. 80:1087-1092.

Nestor, K.E., Anderson, J.W., Velleman, S.G. 2001. Genetic variation in pure lines and crosses of large-bodied turkey lines. 2. Carcass traits and body shape. Poult. Sci. 80:1093-1104.

Nestor, K.E., Bacon, W.L., Velleman, S.G., Anderson, J.W., and Patterson, R.A. 2002. Effect of selection for increased body weight and increased plasma yolk precursor on developmental stability in Japanese quail. Poult. Sci. 81: 160-168.

Medeiros, D.M., Velleman, S.G., Jarrold, B.B., Shiry, L.J., Radin, J., and McCune, S.A. 2002. Ontogeny of enhanced decorin levels and distribution within myocardium of failing hearts. Connect. Tissue Res. 43:1-12.

Emmerson, D.A., Velleman, S.G., and Nestor, K.E. 2002. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 15. Effect of long-term selection for increased egg production on the genetics of growth and egg production traits. Poult. Sci. 81:316-320.

Velleman, S.G. 2002. Role of the extracellular matrix in muscle growth and development. J. Animal Sci. 80: (E. Suppl. 2): E8-E13.

Velleman, S.G., Coy, C.S., Anderson, J.W., Patterson, R.A., and Nestor, K.E. 2002. Effect of selection for growth rate on embryonic breast muscle development in turkeys. Poult. Sci. 81:1113-1121.

Liu, X., Nestor, K.E., McFarland, D.C., and Velleman, S.G. 2002. Developmental expression of skeletal muscle heparan sulfate proteoglycans in turkeys with different growth rates. Poult. Sci. 81:1621-1628.

Ding, S.T., Li, Y.C., Nestor, K.E., Velleman, S.G., and Mersmann, H.J. 2003. Expression of turkey transcription factors and acyl CoA oxidase in different tissues and genetic populations. Poult. Sci. 82:17-24.

Velleman, S.G., Coy, C.S., and Bacon, W.L. 2003. Temporal and spatial localization of the proteoglycan decorin transcripts during the progression of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. Connect. Tissue Res. 44:69-80.

McFarland, D.C., Liu, X., Velleman, S.G., Caiyun, Z., Coy, C.S., and Pesall, J.E. 2003. Variation in fibroblast growth factor response and heparan sulfate proteoglycan production in satellite cell populations. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C 134:341-351.

Velleman, S.G. Anderson, J.W., Coy, C.S., and Nestor, K.E. 2003. Effect of selection for growth rate on muscle damage during turkey breast muscle development. Poult. Sci. 82:1069-1074.

Liu, X., McFarland, D.C., Nestor, K.E., and Velleman, S.G. 2003. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its receptor during skeletal muscle development from turkeys with different growth rates. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 25:215-229.

Velleman, S.G., and Nestor, K.E. 2003. Effect of selection for growth rate on myosin heavy chain temporal and spatial localization during turkey breast muscle development. Poult. Sci. 82:1373-1377.

Velleman, S.G., Coy, C.S., Anderson, J.W., Patterson, R.A., and Nestor, K.E. 2003. Effect of selection for growth rate and inheritance on post hatch muscle development in turkeys. Poult. Sci. 82:1365-1372.

Wick, M., Velleman, S.G., Coy, C.S., McFarland, D.C., and Pretzman, C.I. 2003. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression is altered during in vitro myogenesis in low score normal chickens. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 136:401-408.

Velleman, S.G., Anderson, J.W., and Nestor, K.E. 2003. Possible maternal inheritance of breast muscle morphology in turkeys at sixteen weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 82:1479-1484.

Velleman, S.G., and McFarland, D.C. 2004. Beta 1 integrin mediation of myogenic differentiation: Implications for satellite cell differentiation. Poult. Sci. 83:245-253.

Liu, X., McFarland, D.C., Nestor, K.E., and Velleman, S.G. 2004. Developmentally regulated expression of syndecan-1 and glypican in pectoralis major muscle in turkeys with different growth rates. Dev. Growth Diff. 46:37-51.

Velleman, S.G., Liu, X., Coy, C.S., and McFarland, D.C. 2004. Effects of syndecan-1 and glypican on muscle cell proliferation and differentiation: Implications for possible functions during myogenesis. Poult. Sci. 83: 1020-1027.

Liu, X., Nestor, K.E., and Velleman, S.G. 2004. The influence for increased body weight and sex on pectoralis major muscle weight during the embryonic and post-hatch periods. Poult. Sci. 83: 1089-1092.

Nestor, K.E., Anderson, J.W., Patterson, R.A., and Velleman, S.G. 2004. Genetic variation in body weight and egg production in an experimental line selected long term for increased egg production, a commercial dam line, and reciprocal crosses between lines. Poult. Sci. 83:1055-1059.

Velleman, S.G. and Nestor, K.E. 2004. Inheritance of breast muscle morphology in turkeys at sixteen weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 83:1060-1066.

Liu, C., McFarland, D.C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Effect of selection on MyoD and myogenin expression in turkeys with different growth rates. Poult. Sci. 84:376-384..

Velleman, S.G., and Mozdziak, P.E. 2005. Effects of posthatch feed deprivation on heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, and glypican expression: Implications for muscle growth potential in chickens. Poult. Sci. 84:601-606.

Velleman, S.G., and Nestor, K.E. 2005. Effect of Genetic Increases in Egg Production, Age, and Sex on Muscle Development in Turkeys. Poult Sci. 84:1347-1349.

Nestor, K.E., Anderson, J.W., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Genetic Variation in Pure Lines and Crosses of Large-Bodied Turkey Lines. 3. Growth-Related Measurements on Live Birds. Poult Sci. 84:1341-1346.
Li, X., McFarland, D.C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on decorin and beta 1 integrin expression during muscle development in chickens. Poult. Sci (in press).

Liu, C., McFarland, D.C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are differentially expressed in the skeletal muscle of turkeys with different growth rates. Poult. Sci. (in press).

 



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Book Chapters

Velleman, S.G. 2003. “Extracellular Matrix and Growth,” in Biology of Growth of Domestic Animals ed. Colin Scanes, Iowa State University Press.

Velleman, S.G. and Liu, C. 2005. "Structure and Function of Cell Associated and Pericellular Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans," in Chemistry and Biology of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate. ed. Hari Garg, Elsevier Publishing (in press).
 




Grant Funding

Velleman, S.G. (Co-PI), USDA-NRI, "Identification, Differential Expression, and Mapping of Muscle Genes in Genetically Selected Turkeys," 5/1/05-4/30/09.

Velleman, S.G., Midwest Poultry Research Program, "Growth and Development of the Commercial Pheasant Reared Under Different Environmental Conditions," 6/1/05-5/31/06.

Velleman, S.G. (Co-PI), Midwest Poultry Research Program, "Regulation of the Growth of Turkey Skeletal Muscle, 6/1/05-5/31/05.

Velleman, S.G., OARDC Research Enhancement Competitive Grants, "Regulation of the Growth of Turkey Skeletal Muscle," 4/05-3/06.

Velleman, S.G., Ohio Poultry Association, "Studies on Turkey Muscle Fiber Analysis," 1/05-12/05.

Velleman, S.G. Aviagen, "Maternal Inheritance of Breast Muscle Morphology in Broilers, 1/05-12/31/06.

Velleman, S.G. Cobb-Vantress. “Effect of Selection on Breast Muscle Morphological Characteristics and Creatine Kinase,” 7/1/04-6/30/05.

Velleman, S.G., USDA-NRI, “Role of Proteoglycans in Skeletal Muscle Growth and Development,” 9/1/2003-8/31/2006.


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Gene Sequences

Liu, X. and Velleman, S.G. 2001. Meleagris gallopavo syndecan-1 mRNA, partial cds. GenBank Accession number AF416704.

Liu X., and Velleman, S.G. 2002. Meleagris gallopavo glypican precursor, mRNA, partial cds. GenBank Accession number AY150229.

Velleman, S.G., and Coy, C.S. 2002. Gallus gallus integrin beta 1A precursor, mRNA, partial cds. GenBank Accession number AY159125.

Velleman, S.G. 2002. Gallus gallus integrin beta 1D mRNA, partial cds. GenBank Accession number AF547620.

Liu, C. and Velleman, S.G. 2004. Meleagris gallopavo glypican-1 precursor mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY551002.

Liu, C. and Velleman, S.G. 2004. Meleagris gallopavo myogenin mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY560111.

Liu, C. and Velleman, S.G. 2004. Melagris gallopavo MyoD mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY641567.

Liu, C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Meleagris gallopavo syndecan-2 mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY852249.

Liu, C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Meleagris gallopavo syndecan-3 mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY852250.

Liu, C., and Velleman, S.G. 2005. Meleagris gallopavo syndecan-4 mRNA, complete cds. GenBank Accession number AY852251.