Ancients in Europe named the flower after Artemis, the goddess of women, because it was common to use the plant to treat diseases of women. Christians called it 'Maudlin daisy' or 'Maudlinwort' after Mary Magdalen.
Many of the common names given to this species refer to thunder and the gods of thunderstorms because flowers often appear in summer during thunderstorm season. Also, it was believed that ox-eye daisy could ward off lightning.
Ox-eye daisy was used medicinally as an antispasmodic, diuretic, and a treatment for coughs. A lotion made from the plant was applied to wounds, bruises, and ulcers.