2013 Ohio Performance Test
Ohio State University Extension
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University
Horticulture and Crop Science Series 228 - July 2013
Rich Minyo, Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Laura Lindsey, Assistant Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Allen Geyer, Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Clay Sneller, Associate Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Pierce Paul, Associate Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
David Lohnes, Web Developer, OARDC Information Technology Dept.
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see front cover) using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Tests were planted within twenty one days after the fly-safe date and approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen was applied at planting followed by the addition of 80-100 pounds in early spring. Herbicides and insecticides were applied as needed for weed and insect control, and the following data were collected:
Yield is reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.
Seed Size is thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds per lb.).
Percent Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.
Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 15.)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated disease screening nursery at Wooster. FHB was rated as the percentage of spikelets diseased per plot (disease index).
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Blumaria graminis f.
Sp. tritici) was evaluated at Wooster when most varieties were at the heading (Feekes growth stage 10.5) growth stage. Each plot was rated on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 to trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace - 50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1-5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with >15% leaf area covered (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the upward progress of the disease on the plants.
Glume Blotch (SGB) and Leaf Blotch (SLB) Varieties were evaluated for Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch in an inoculated, irrigated disease screening nursery at Wooster. Both SLB and SGB severity were rated at about Feekes growth stage 11.3 as the average percent leaf and spike area diseased, respectively.
Flour Yield is the percent flour
yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values
higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate
for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST
Soil test results will be
posted on our web site when available.
|Soil Test P (ppm)
|Soil Test K (ppm)
In fall 2012, soybean harvest was later than usual which slightly delayed wheat planting. Fall growth was above average at all test sites due to extended warm temperatures. During late January/early February, there was a lack of snow cover and most of the state experienced single digit temperatures. However, wheat survival the following spring was good. Cool temperatures this spring delayed green-up in many areas. Above average temperatures in early May accelerated plant growth and heading dates were within 1-2 days of average. June temperatures were fairly cool which resulted in an extended grain fill period. Late-season rainfall in June and early July delayed harvest and resulted in shattering at the Northwest Branch Agricultural Research Station (NWB) trial location. Grain yield at the other trial locations were fairly high.
Results of the 2013 wheat performance test are presented in Tables 1-3. Entries in the data tables are arranged by seed source. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 90 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the reported LSD value. Flour yield and softness tests were performed by USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Dr. Byung-Kee Baik, Director.
Test results for the 80 soft red winter wheat varieties evaluated in 2013 are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields varied between 37.7 and 107.2 bushels per acre and test weight ranged from 55.6 to 59.4 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the soil drainage, weather during the grain fill period, and disease level. Yield was lower at the Northwest Branch Agricultural Research Station compared to the other locations due to heavy rainfall on July 11 which caused shattering in some varieties. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (Tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability. Particular emphasis should be placed on FHB as this is important in reducing vomitoxin in grain.
Table 4 contains susceptibility of winter wheat varieties to various diseases in Ohio. Table 5 contains the company contact information and seed treatments used for each variety entered in the 2013 wheat performance test.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Test does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2013 wheat variety testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Ken Scaife, OARDC Field Operations, Wooster, Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch Research Station, and Steve Prochaska, OSU- Crawford Co. Extension. We thank Dave Scardena in Communications and Technology for his assistance in preparing the test results for publication.
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June
30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L.
Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.