James Beuerlein, Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science Pat Lipps, Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology Rich Minyo, Jr., Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science David Jordan, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science, Retired
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see front cover) using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 50 feet long. Participating companies selected the seeding rate for each of their varieties. Test were planted within ten days after the fly-safe date with approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen applied at planting followed by the addition of about 70 pounds in early spring. Herbicides were applied as needed for weed control. The following data were collected:
Yield Plots were harvested with a self propelled plot harvester with yield being reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight Test weights were measured at all locations using harvest grain moisture.
Seed Size Thousands of harvested seeds per pound. Example: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds / pound.
Percent Lodging Lodging was a visual estimate of the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical. Test site 2 was the only test site with lodging.
Plant Height Plant height was the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date The heading date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. Example: Day 136 = May 16.
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis ) was evaluated at Bucyrus on 8 June and at Wooster on 14 June, 2001. Each plot was rated based on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 - trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace-50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1- 5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with > 15% leaf area covered. (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the progress of the disease upward on the plants.
Stagonospsora Leaf Blotch (SLB) Stagonospora leaf blotch (caused by Stagonospora nodorum) was evaluated at Circleville on 14 June, 2001. Each plot was rated using the same disease rating scale used for powdery mildew (see above). At the time of assessment the glume blotch phase of the disease was not uniform enough across the plots for valid cultivar comparisons.
Head Scab (SCAB) Head scab (caused by Fusarium graminearum) was assessed at Circleville on 14, June 2001. Head scab was assessed by estimating the percentage of heads with symptoms of scab in each plot. Head scab was also assessed at Bucyrus, but the overall level of disease was low in most cultivars and differences in reaction were not readily apparent among most cultivars except the most susceptible cultivars. Therefore, only the data from Circleville is presented.
Flour Flour is the percent flour yield of milled whole grain from samples collected from the Wayne County site.
Softness Softness is the percent of fine granularity milled flour from samples collected at the Wayne County site. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable for milling and baking.
|CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE|
|PLANT DATE||Sept 29||Oct 4||Oct 2||Oct 3||Oct 11|
|HARVEST DATE||July 13||July 12||July 16||July 11||July 10|
|SOIL TEST (PH,P,K)||6.3, 27, 211||6.9, 26, 118||6.8 29, 95||6.3, 29, 145||5.6, 23, 146|
Field and weather conditions were favorable for timely planting in October, 2000. Fall growth was excellent throughout most of the state and all test sites tillered well before the onset of winter dormancy. Winter survival was excellent with very little winterkill. March was generally cool but also dryer than normal and followed by a warmer than normal April that resulted in greater than normal growth. Early May was warmer and wetter than normal followed by cold and wet conditions in late May and early June. June was typically cooler and dryer than normal. Rainfall was quite variable throughout the spring which resulted in both flooding and dry conditions in different parts of the state. Although late May and early June were wetter than normal, disease development was retarded by cool temperatures in most areas.
Four Triticale entries were evaluated along with wheat entries. Triticale is a cross between wheat and rye with performance somewhat similar to wheat. The performance of the triticale entries are presented in table 4.
Entries in the all data tables are arranged in order of increasing heading date averaged for several locations. A Least Significant Difference (LSD) is reported for yield and other characteristics. Yields and characteristics of two varieties are significantly different 70 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the LSD value reported. Flour and softness ratings were performed by USDA-ARS soft wheat quality laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH., Charles Gaines, director.
Disease evaluations Wheat diseases were generally light in most test locations; however sufficient powdery mildew developed at the Wooster and Bucyrus locations so that cultivar comparisons could be made. Powdery mildew reactions for certain varieties differed greatly between Wooster and Bucyrus locations indicating that new virulent types of the powdery mildew fungus may be present in Ohio capable of causing disease on cultivars previously considered to be resistant to prevalent races in the state. Stagonospora leaf blotch and head scab were evaluated at the Circleville location, where there is sufficient rainfall before and during the flowering period for most cultivars to favored disease development. Powdery mildew probably had an effect on yield of cultivars with the higher levels of disease at Wooster and Bucyrus. Head scab likely had a greater effect on yield of susceptible cultivars at Circleville than did Stagonospora leaf blotch. Cultivars with the higher levels of head scab at Circleville were the same ones with higher levels of scab at Bucyrus (Bucyrus data not presented).
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial does not constitute an endorsement of a particular entry by the Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or the Ohio State University Extension.
Go to Ohio Crop Performance
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Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.
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