Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Tested in Ohio, 2005.

Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Tested in Ohio, 2004 - 2005.

Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Tested in Ohio, 2003 - 2005.

Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Soft White Winter Wheat Varieties Tested in Ohio, 2005.

Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Soft White Winter Wheat Varieties Tested in Ohio, 2004 - 2005.

Reaction of Winter Wheat Varieties to Various Diseases in Ohio.

Seed Source

2005 Ohio Wheat Performance Test

Ohio State University Extension
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University

Horticulture and Crop Science Series 228 - July 2005

James Beuerlein,
Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Pat Lipps, Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
Clay Sneller, Associate Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Rich Minyo, Jr., Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science


The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see front cover) using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate for each of their varieties. Tests were planted within ten days after the fly-safe date and approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen was applied at planting followed by the addition of 70-100 pounds in early spring. Herbicides were applied as needed for weed control and the following data were collected:

Yield is reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.

Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.

Seed Size in thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds per lb.).

Percent Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.

Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.

Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 16.)

Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis) was assessed in Wayne Co. on June 2 when most varieties were flowering (Feekes growth stage 10.5.1). Each plot was rated based on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 to trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace - 50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1-5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with >15% leaf area covered (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the progress of the disease upward on the plants.

Leaf rust Severity of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) was assessed as the percentage of flag leaf area covered by rust pustules in each plot on June 14 at the Pickaway County plot. Plants were in the soft dough stage of development (Feekes GS 11.2) and the level of rust was relatively low on most varieties. Overall leaf rust was variable from plot to plot except on the more susceptible cultivars. Due to the overall low level of disease and the variability in severity across replications, differences in resistance levels among most varieties could not be adequately assessed.

Flour Yield is the percent flour yield from milled whole grain.

Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.



CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE

NORTHWEST BUCYRUS WOOSTER GREENVILLE CIRCLEVILLE
COUNTY WOOD CRAWFORD WAYNE DARKE PICKAWAY
PREVIOUS CROP Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean
SOIL TYPE Hoytville Blount Canfield Kokomo Ockley
TILLAGE No-till No-till Conventional No-till No-till
PLANT DATE Oct. 1 Oct. 5 Sept. 30 Sept. 28 Oct. 4
SOIL pH 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.1 6.5
Soil Test P (ppm) 34 32 46 37 31
Soil Test K (ppm) 196 111 162 123 136
FERTILIZER (N,P,K) 120-46-61 90-0-0 124-60-160 118-69-60 117-78-90
HERBICIDES APPLIED Stinger   Harmony Extra Harmony Extra Harmony Extra
HARVEST DATE July 7 July 8 July 9 July 11 July 5

GROWING CONDITIONS

Field and weather conditions were favorable for timely planting in October, 2004. Fall growth was marginally adequate except in Wood County which was very dry with reduced fall growth and tillering before the onset of winter dormancy. Winter survival was good with almost no winterkill at any of the test sites. The weather in April and May was slightly warmer than normal and June was 4 degrees above normal. In Wayne County, the plots headed 4 days earlier than the other test sites in northern Ohio and also had a longer grain filling resulting in increased yield relative to other test sites. Dry weather and higher temperatures in late June shortened the grain fill period in Wood county resulting in reduced grain yields. There was very little disease at most of the test sites which resulted in significantly increased yield at most sites.

Wheat Test Locator Map

RESULTS & EVALUATIONS

Results of the 2005 wheat performance evaluation are presented in tables 1-6. Entries in the data tables are arranged in order of increasing average heading date. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 70 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the LSD value reported. Quality analysis to determine flour yield and softness was performed by USDA-ARS soft wheat quality laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Charles Gaines, director.

Test results for the 62 soft red winter wheat varieties are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year performance data for this class of wheat. Depending on variety and test site, yields were between 54.9 and 130.0 bushels per acre, and average test weight ranged from 56.8 to 61.5 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites are primarily due to the length of the grain fill period. The average heading date was six days later than in 2003 and 3 days later than normal. Average plant height was four inches greater than in 2004. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability.

Three soft white winter wheat varieties were evaluated along with the soft red varieties at sites 1, 2 and 3. Performance of those varieties is presented in Table 4, with two-year performance data in table 5.

Soft white winter wheat and hard red winter wheat should never be mixed together or be mixed with soft red winter wheat because they have very different flour characteristics and end uses. Mixing of different classes of wheat destroys their unique utility, makes them unacceptable for quality premiums and reduces their usefulness to animal feed only.

Table 6 contains reaction of winter wheat varieties to various diseases in Ohio.

Table 7 contains the company contact information and seed treatments used for each variety entered in the 2005 wheat performance trial.

This report can be found on the Internet at: www.agcrops.osu.edu. Any column of data can be sorted by clicking at the top of the column, which makes it easy to arrange varieties in order by any characteristic for comparison purposes.

Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.


Go to Ohio Crop Performance


11/2005
    All educational programs and activities conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.