2019 Ohio Wheat Performance Test
J. McCormick, C.H. Sneller, L.E. Lindsey, Dept. of Horticulture & Crop Science
P. Paul, Dept.
Of Plant Pathology
D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology Services
Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center / Ohio State University Extension
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality, and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 25 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Tests were planted three to twenty-one days after the fly-free date based on soil conditions and approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen/acre was applied at planting followed by the addition of 80-100 pounds/acre in early spring. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides were applied as needed. The following data were collected:
Yield is reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.
Seed Size is thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds per lb.).
Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees
Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. Average of Wood, Wayne, and Crawford locations. (Example: Day 135 = May 15.)
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Blumaria graminis f. sp. Tritici) was evaluated on a 0 to 10 scale at Wooster at the heading (Feekes growth stage 10.5) growth stage. Varieties were then ranked as Susceptible (S: score ≥ 8), Moderately Susceptible (MS: score > 5 and < 8), Moderately Resistant (MR: score > 3 and < 5) and Resistant (R: score < 3). Due to weather conditions in 2019, PM rankings are reported for 2017 and 2018.
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated disease screening nursery at Wooster. FHB was rated as the percentage of spikelets diseased per plot (disease index).
Glume Blotch (SGB) and Leaf Blotch (SLB) Varieties were evaluated for Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch in an inoculated, mist-irrigated disease screening nursery at Wooster. Both SLB and SGB severity were rated at about Feekes growth stage 11.3 as the average percent flag leaf and spike area diseased, respectively. Due to weather conditions in 2019, SGB and SLB ratings are reported for 2017 and 2018.
Flour Yield is the percent flour yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE
|Soil Test P (ppm)
|Soil Test K (ppm)
||Roundup Sharpen (Pre-Plant)
||Harmony Extra SG
|Harmony Extra SG
In fall 2018, wheat was planted at three out of the five locations within two weeks of the fly-free date. Due to poor soil conditions, wheat was planted in Marion and Wayne County 16 and 23 days after the fly-free date, respectively. Wheat entered dormancy in good to excellent condition. Early season wheat growth and development were slower than the previous years due to cool temperatures and above average precipitation. However, harvest conditions were favorable and harvest dates average. Results from the Marion County were not included in this report due to extreme field variability caused by high rainfall. Overall, grain test weight averaged 55.0 lb/bu (compared to an average test weight of 55.5 lb/bu in 2018). Across the Wood, Wayne, Darke, and Pickaway locations, grain yield averaged 85.9 bu/acre.
Test results for the 73 winter wheat varieties evaluated in 2019 are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields varied between 68.1 and 105.3 bushels per acre and test weight ranged from 51.9 to 56.9 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the soil drainage, weather during the grain fill period & harvest, and disease level. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (Tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability.
Table 4 contains susceptibility of winter wheat varieties to various diseases in Ohio. Particular emphasis should be placed on FHB as this is important in reducing vomitoxin in grain. Table 5 contains the company contact information and seed treatments used for each variety entered in the 2019 wheat performance test.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Test does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2019 wheat variety testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Ken Scaife, OARDC Field Operations, Wooster and Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch Research Station. We thank CFAES Marketing and Communications for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication. Special thanks to Rich Minyo, OARDC Wooster, for his assistance and expertise in conducting the 2019 Ohio Wheat Performance Test.
Go to Ohio Crop Performance Homepage
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Roger Rennekamp, Director, Ohio State University Extension.