2008 Ohio Performance Test
Ohio State University Extension
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University
Horticulture and Crop Science Series 228 - July 2008
James Beuerlein, Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Rich Minyo, Jr., Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Pierce Paul, Associate Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
Clay Sneller, Associate Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see front cover) using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Tests were planted within fourteen days after the fly-safe date and approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen was applied at planting followed by the addition of 70-100 pounds in early spring. Herbicides and insecticides were applied as needed for weed and insect control, and the following data were collected:
Yield is reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.
Seed Size in thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds per lb.).
Percent Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.
Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 16.)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated screening nursery at Wooster. Rating scale (0-100) is percent of spikelets infected per head.
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Blumaria graminis f.
Sp. tritici) was evaluated at Wooster when most varieties were at the flowering (Feekes growth stage 10.5.1) growth stage. Each plot was rated on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 to trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace - 50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1-5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with >15% leaf area covered (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the upward progress of the disease on the plants.
Flour Yield is the percent flour
yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values
higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate
for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST
|Soil Test P (ppm)
|Soil Test K (ppm)
Field and weather conditions delayed planting slightly in October, 2007. Fall growth was outstanding at all test sites due to an extended warm fall season. The crop was covered with snow through January and winter survival was good due to the general lack of harsh weather in February and March. April and May weather was cooler and wetter than normal, causing the crop to head a few days later than normal. June and July were also cloudy and wet, slowing maturity, delaying harvest, and lowering grain quality throughout much of the state. The straw was shorter than normal with straw yield marginally reduced, but of excellent quality and brightness. Disease levels varied by test site, but were lower than normal. The general lack of disease is partially responsible for the better-than-expected grain yield.
Results of the 2008 wheat performance evaluation are presented in tables 1-3. Entries in the data tables are arranged in order of increasing average heading date. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 70 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the LSD value reported. Flour yield and softness tests were performed by USDA-ARS soft wheat quality laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Dr. Ed Souza, director.
Test results for the 60 soft red winter wheat varieties and two soft white winter wheat varieties are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields varied between 62.7 and 112.5 bushels per acre, and test weight ranged from 53.1 to 59.4 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the weather during the grain fill period and disease level. Winter survival was excellent due to the mild winter and there was no lodging due to the shortness of the straw. The average heading date was near normal, but plant height was about six inches shorter than normal.
Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability. Performance data for the white wheat varieties is presented at the bottom of Table 1 and 2 in bold print, and marked with an asterisk.
Soft white winter wheat and hard red winter wheat should never be mixed with soft red winter wheat because they have very different flour characteristics and end uses. Mixing of different classes of wheat destroys their unique utility, makes them unacceptable for quality premiums and reduces their usefulness to animal feed only.
Table 4 contains reaction of winter wheat varieties to various diseases in Ohio and
Table 5 contains the company contact information and seed treatments used for each variety entered in the 2008 wheat performance trial.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June
30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L.
Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.