2011 Ohio Performance Test
Ohio State University Extension
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University
Horticulture and Crop Science Series 228 - July 2011
Rich Minyo, Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Allen Geyer, Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Peter Thomison, Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Clay Sneller, Associate Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Pierce Paul, Associate Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
David Lohnes, Web Developer, OARDC Information Technology Dept.
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see front cover) using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Tests were planted within sixteen days after the fly-safe date and approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen was applied at planting followed by the addition of 70-100 pounds in early spring. Herbicides and insecticides were applied as needed for weed and insect control, and the following data were collected:
Yield is reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.
Seed Size is thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds per lb.).
Percent Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.
Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 16.)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated disease screening nursery at Wooster. FHB was rated as the percentage of spikelets diseased per plot (disease index).
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Blumaria graminis f.
Sp. tritici) was evaluated at Wooster when most varieties were at the heading (Feekes growth stage 10.5) growth stage. Each plot was rated on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 to trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace - 50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1-5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with >15% leaf area covered (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the upward progress of the disease on the plants.
Glume Blotch (SGB) Stagonospora glume blotch was rated at Feekes growth stage 11.3 as average percent spike area diseased.
Flour Yield is the percent flour
yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values
higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate
for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST
|Soil Test P (ppm)
|Soil Test K (ppm)
Planting of the 2011 test was slightly delayed in the fall of 2010 due to field and weather conditions. Fall growth was excellent at all test sites due to an extended warm fall season. Winter survival was very good due to snow cover through January and the general lack of harsh weather in February and March. The weather in April and early-May was cool and had above average precipitation. The saturated soil conditions effected early spring growth, plant vigor and overall stands. A mid May warm-up accelerated plant growth and the crop headed a few days later than normal. Temperature in late May and early June were above normal in Southern Ohio which shortened the grain fill period and reduced yields. Decreased yields and test weights were observed at Circleville and Greenville where Fusarium Head Blight and Stagonospora Glume Blotch infected susceptible varieties.
Results of the 2011 wheat performance evaluation are presented in Tables 1-3. Entries in the data tables are arranged by seed source. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 70 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the LSD value reported. Flour yield and softness tests were performed by USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Dr. Peg Redinbaugh, interim Research Leader.
Test results for the 70 soft red winter wheat varieties tested in 2011 are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields in 2011 varied between 53.1 and 107.4 bushels per acre, and test weight ranged from 54.7 to 63.3 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the cool wet spring, weather during the grain fill period, and disease level. Winter survival was excellent due to the mild winter and there was little plant lodging. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (Tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability. Particular emphasis should be placed on FHB as this is important in reducing vomitoxin in grain.
Table 4 contains reaction of winter wheat varieties to various diseases in Ohio and
Table 5 contains the company contact information and seed treatments used for each variety entered in the 2011 wheat performance trial.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2011 wheat variety testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Lynn Ault, OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch Research Station, and Steve Prochaska, OSU- Crawford Co. Extension. We thank Tim Bowman in Communications and Technology for his assistance in preparing the test results for publication.
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June
30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L.
Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.